Li-ping?Li?a, b,Ben-gang?Zhangb, c, ?,Zhao?Zhangb,Xiao-jin?Lic,Guo-ping?Wang?c,Hai-long?Songc,Cong-zhao?Fanc,Yang-ming?Jianga,Tuo?Wanga,Hui-hui?Zhaoa,Jiang-shan?Lai?d,Xiu-lian?Chi?e,Xue-ping?Wei?b,Chong-ming?Wub,Yao-dong?Qi?b,Hai-tao?Liu?b,Pei-gen?Xiaob,Eimear Nic Lughadhaf,Christine J. Leong.Towards a scientific rationale for traditional properties of Chinese medicinal plants: a?naturesa? and a?flavorsa?[J].Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHM),2019,11(3):
Towards a scientific rationale for traditional properties of Chinese medicinal plants: a?naturesa? and a?flavorsa?
  
DOI:10.1016/j.chmed.2019.05.002
中文关键词:  
英文关键词:flavor  nature  Chinese materia medica  theory of Chinese medicine property  Xinjiang region
基金项目:
Author NameAffiliation
Li-ping?Li?a, b aInstitute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China bInstitute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China 
Ben-gang?Zhangb, c, ? bInstitute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China cXinjiang Institute of Chinese and Ethnic Medicine, Urumqi 830002, China 
Zhao?Zhangb bInstitute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China 
Xiao-jin?Lic cXinjiang Institute of Chinese and Ethnic Medicine, Urumqi 830002, China 
Guo-ping?Wang?c cXinjiang Institute of Chinese and Ethnic Medicine, Urumqi 830002, China 
Hai-long?Songc cXinjiang Institute of Chinese and Ethnic Medicine, Urumqi 830002, China 
Cong-zhao?Fanc cXinjiang Institute of Chinese and Ethnic Medicine, Urumqi 830002, China 
Yang-ming?Jianga aInstitute?of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China 
Tuo?Wanga aInstitute?of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China 
Hui-hui?Zhaoa aInstitute?of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China 
Jiang-shan?Lai?d dState Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China 
Xiu-lian?Chi?e eNational Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Dao-di Herbs, Beijing 100700, China 
Xue-ping?Wei?b bInstitute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China 
Chong-ming?Wub bInstitute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100194, China 
Yao-dong?Qi?b bInstitute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China 
Hai-tao?Liu?b bInstitute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China 
Pei-gen?Xiaob bInstitute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China 
Eimear Nic Lughadhaf fConservation Science Department, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3AE, UK 
Christine J. Leong gCollections Department, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3AE, UK 
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中文摘要:
      
英文摘要:
      Objective According to theory of Chinese medicine property, the ecological environment shapes properties (natures and flavors) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) and there are close relationships between certain natures and flavors. However, to date these observations have not been validated scientifically in the context of the whole flora of a region. The present study aims to address this gap. Methods We collected geographical distributions of 3637 vascular plant species native to the Xinjiang region of northwest China, of which around 812 are medicinal plants. The CMM property characters of these medicinal plants were also collected. All medicinal plants were then analyzed in the occurrence of their natures (cold, cool, neutral, warm, and hot) and flavors (sweet, bitter, sour, salty, and pungent). Possible correlations between these properties and environmental factors, notably climate, as well as correlations with plant species richness of the wider native flora of Xinjiang were then investigated using permutation test and regression. Results Cold species (38.5%) were more numerous than warm (21.0%) and neutral (22.3%), while bitter species (43.3%) were more numerous than pungent (25.6%), sweet (22.4%) and sour (6.7%) ones. Species with bitter flavor were most commonly also cold (48.6%) in nature, sour flavor usually coincided with cold (44.2%) or cool nature (26.0%), whereas pungent or sweet species tended to be warm (34.4%, 28.4%) or neutral (27.8%, 28.4%). The percentages of species of cold/cool nature, bitter flavor were higher in mountainous regions, and the percentages of warm/neutral and pungent/sweet/sour were higher in basins. The percentages of species of bitter, cold/cool, bitter were positively correlated with actual evapotranspiration (AET), plant species richness andbut had a bell-shaped relationship with potential evapotranspiration (PET), whereas the inverse situation was shown for warm/neutral and pungent/sweet/sour species. Conclusion Analysis of the data in Xinjiang region of China supports the qualitative observations concerning natures and flavors in traditional theory of Chinese medicine property. Specifically, (i) certain natures and flavors co-occur more frequently than if randomly distributed; (ii) correlations between proportions of natures and flavors and climatic variables suggest a role for the environment in shaping the properties of CMM.
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